Making a Carbon Fibre Bike Frame – From CAD Design to Downhill Race

Making a Carbon Fibre Bike Frame – From CAD Design to Downhill Race


[Music] [Applause] [Music] Hi everyone, Paul here from Easy Composites. If you’re a regular follower of our channel you’ll notice that this video is a bit different; it’s not our usual structured tutorial – this is more of an in-depth case study on the build of this carbon-fibre downhill bike. This bike was conceived, designed and manufactured from start to finish by the very talented Vlad Yordinov who I’ve got here with me. He came to us to see whether we were interested in helping him take this design concept through to a finished frame, which of course we were. This was about two years ago wasn’t it? Yeah, that’s about right. A few things excited us about this project; firstly bike frame manufacturer is one of those questions that we get asked very often and it would be a good opportunity to show people just how it’s done and secondly it’s also a fantastic showcase for what can be achieved using the XPREG out-of-autoclave prepreg. You’ll have to bear with us a bit through this video Vlad’s a very busy guy and we’ve been very busy ourselves so we’ve had to grab shots of this project as it’s going through various phases as and when we could so you’re gonna see beards and haircuts to come and go, one or two t-shirts come and go but hopefully by the end of this video you’ll take away some new knowledge and a big dose of inspiration as to what can be achieved with the right skill and determination and of course the right materials and support. So, the finished bikes here? Yeah, all here and it took a good few hundred hours to make it and this has already been ridden for quite a while and raced and yeah we’re gonna see how it was actually made in the video. Excellent, well – okay. Well clearly this is a piece of art as much as a feat of engineering so we’ll go back to the start and see how it was made. So the first stage when you make your mould is making the pattern that the moulds are going to be made from. In the case of this it’s been machined from epoxy model board it’s necessary to use epoxy modelboard as opposed to pulyurethane because the molds that we’re going to make made from prepreg and prepreg doesn’t work with polyurethane. This has been machined on a three axis router that’s a machine that’s got motion basically in three plains so down the X, Y and then the Z-axis. Not necessarily a five axis machine, it’s actually most of these areas on the mould can be accessed just simply from a 3-axis point. A CNC machine will first of all go through and rough out the shape and then it will will continue on and do fine finishing passes but if anybody’s ever done this before you’ll be more than aware of the fact that it doesn’t leave you with a finish like this so what did it actually take to go from the machining through to this that we see now with a high-gloss finish? Well we have to go through a few rounds of sanding and then sealing the the boards and then sanding again up to a final seal and polish. As you see we left all the flanges, they only have two coats of sealer and also where the inserts locate, they also have only two coats of sealer so this will ensure that inserts and the two halves of the mould they fit right. Because obviously with the sealer as you as you put multiple coats of sealer down onto a pattern it will build up the thickness, now the amount of thickness it builds up is – although very very small – is acceptable on the molded faces but where you need the accuracy where the molds come together the inserts go in that any build up on these areas would lead to inaccuracy on your flash lines so that the tools wouldn’t fit together as well but just looking at this I can also see we’ve got an awful lot of holes put in machined into this? So we do have around 60 pins which ensure that’s the to halves they bolt together right, so it’s for location, for clamping purposes because carbon moulds – they’re not as stiff as a solid block of aluminium so that’s why we need those clamping points and the closer they are to the edge the better. Okay so these these will have metal pins placed into the pattern so when the moulds made and that be laminated around those and we actually end up with holes in the mould itself so all of that aids in just aligning everything perfectly and making sure that the mold is is accurate and true. There’s a few of a sort of areas of interest that I can see here we’ve got areas don’t look like they’re part of the original bike we’ve got these sections for the inserts… How do you determine where you need inserts? Well everything that’s an undercut it requires an insert – uh-huh – and also some of the hard to laminate areas – they could come as inserts as well. Okay, so presumably like in this area? Like the shock tunnel, that’s why we need an insert but this is all extended – uh huh – because we need this insert to locate into the mould. And that bolts in using the same same method – exactly – as the molds come together. Okay, right so from the pattern and we’ve gone through we put a sealer down onto it then presumably multiple coats of release agent to ensure we get a good release and likewise on the metal pins that drop into these holes they’ll need an awful lot of release agent because they’ve got to be drawn out from a completely parallel bore and then it’s on to making the mould itself. Here’s the completed mould that’s been taken from the pattern and this been made from an XPREG tooling prepreg so it’s it’s done out-of-autoclave, so just under vacuum in an oven and the black surface finish that you see here actually comes from the prepreg itself it has a glass fiber scrim cloth that supports pigmented resin which gives you really excellent tool surfaces. The actual layup of this itself Vlad, how many how many plies of material do you have in this mould? Oh it’s pretty simple – it’s one layer of the surface play and then we have another five backing layers less which are high weight. And that builds up the main bulk? Yes, the bulk of the mould and gives this the strength to the mould. Okay I’m looking at this, it’s obviously quite quite a complex shape we’re looking to form and this pattern – obviously that’s not going to be laid up in just one piece of material is it? No, it can’t be in one piece of material. I started with the corners and all corners they’re going plus/minus 45. So you actually cut the material, the surface ply, in thin strips at 45 degrees? So this ensures that all the corners are pushed in. The same goes for every single pin so we have little strips of 45 on every single every single pen. Yeah? That must have taken quite some time to laminate? Before actually covering, before finishing the first ply, this has all been debulked. Okay, so you debulk after, what, between every ply? I debulked on the first ply twice when the corners were in and then when the corners were covered so this ensures that the first ply stays on. And that actually just hels to tack it down it helps to tack it all down? Yeah, the second debulk I left the over night so this makes sure that when I come in the morning it’s all my property stuck to the mould. Fully consolidated. So the purpose of a debulk is basically pulling a vacuum , usually with a perforated peel ply, you pull a vacuum and it just compresses at each stage of your lamination, it takes the bulk out of the material – so where the material is normally sort of sagging away from the mould, by putting it into a vacuum bag it presses it into the corners and really ensures a good layup. So once it was all laid up that’s been cured, so it was done at a low temperature initial cure? Yes a lot of time for change to occur which was slightly longer then it was taken off the tool after good fight with all those pins, yes yeah yeah extracting the pins from this once they were cured, if you imagine the the mold the pins coming out of here through this section they are completely parallel pins, actually drawing them out is quite difficult we opted for a trick of using a cordless drill to actually spin them out and that worked reasonably well, it did work quite well and so the reason for a low temperature cure why not just take it right up to say a hundred and twenty degrees and do the cure at that temperature, is that the epoxy modelboard actually expands all model boards do and all materials expand at different rates and if we went straight up to 120 degrees this the pattern would actually be larger than it was originally machined so it’s cured at low temperature it’s then removed from the pattern and then post cured and that does the final hardening of the mold and makes it able to operate at its final service temperature. Just to add on for the post-cure we had both halves together bolted up because the flatness of the boards is… even after this machined the board always has a little bow, okay so it’s not perfectly flat so in our case the mold was like the edges were warped up and the center was a bit lower mm-hmm but this was fixed by bolting the two halves together yeah and post-curing them. Right so the final stage of the curing is actually done with the with the molds bolted together which will, when you do a post cure it slightly softens the resin and when they’re bolted together they’re pulled flat, when it softens the resin then it finally does its final curing/hardening it will be much more accurate and by putting the two together so that’s it that’s a great tip for anybody making prepreg split tools. You’re also not stressing the tools by trying to overcome the warp yeah every time you’re clamping them up if you do want more information on how to go from a machine pattern prep it and make molds we do actually have videos just specifically covering this topic in quite a lot of detail so if you’re interested it might well be worth checking those out. We mentioned briefly when we were looking at the pattern that there’s a lot of inserts in the frame now these inserts are the sections for like where the shock comes through the shock tunnel here and we actually have the frame splitting so we need another piece of the mold that can then be drawn out. So I’m looking at these Vlad they’re not made from the same material as the mold and they’re not made from modelboard so tell me what these are all about how you how you made them so basically I machined patterns from epoxy okay and then a Cast Silicone over this modelboard, you made a negative from silicon, yes and from this negative I used high temperature resin and graphite it’s graphite powder, so the graphite powder okay, give it actually some strength and I’ve casted the inserts into those silicone molds, actually just poured the resin into the silicon molds to to actually make that insert, forgive me for asking but why not just machine an epoxy insert? Well again as we mentioned earlier epoxy expands under temperature and we need something which is with similar expansion rate to the tool, Because these tools are a carbon fiber and carbon fibers well known having very very low rate of CTE so coefficient of thermal expansion the amount it changes in size with heat and epoxy modelboard although it’s quite stable, you’re saying in these cases with it with the large insert like that it was it would actually cause problems through its expansion? Yeah it might, it might cause problems so it’s better to have something stable, take it out of the equation, right, okay so these are graphite filled high-temperature epoxy inserts then? Yeah which you can see the difference between this one and this one, so this one that’s how it comes out of the mold yeah out of the silicone mold and this one has been sealed polished and released the inserts they need to be polished so they come out of the frame easier okay so it when it’s demoulded, so in terms of the sealing and finishing just the same as a mold so an S120 board sealer and then easylease release agent over the top of it? Yes. okay another reason why we’re using silicone molds is in case we break an insert and in prototyping sometimes you know mistakes happen so this is just making sure that when we mold the frame when we get the frame out if the insert is stuck we can destroy the insert but save the frame. Right so they’re almost sacrificial? Yeah they’re sacrificial. Yeah then we can just go and cast another insert so… and that’s it. Okay well right an easy way to keep making the insert section so we’ve got those in the head-tube there, they’re leaving space for the bearing journals bottom bracket lower linkage mount, there we go, fantastic okay well i suppose what we need to go onto now is the really interesting bit and see what goes into a lay-up on the bike so here we’ve got the prepreg materials that are going to be used for the actual frame construction itself we’ve got the XPREG XC110 system here which is out-of-autoclave, so just in the vacuum and in an oven and we’ve got a woven fabric 210 gram and then a 300 gram uni-directional, the individual pieces of material are cut to size by hand and marked to make identifying the correct piece easier during layup in volume production this process would normally be performed by a CNC cutting machine. The majority of the unidirectional fabrics have now been cut we’ve seen that that’s been done oversize to allow a little bit of adjustment and alignment and and actually tailoring it on the job but this templating that you’re doing here with the masking tape why are you doing this at this stage? Well this is specifically for the first layer which is not UD it’s gonna be twill, okay, and we going for the raw carbon finish so all the weave needs to be adjusted so the frame is made in five or six separate pieces and those pieces they need to match together right so this is, this is, templating for the woven layer the twill layer that’s going on first and you’re using these templates to make sure that the the weave is going to align accurately and a lot of that will be presumably for cosmetic purposes to make it make sure that the, yeah because the frame is going to be left in that sort of natural raw carbon finish so this is the complete kit of parts then how many how many parts are there in this frame build? roughly we have around 300 individual pieces, Wow so 300 individual pieces right I suppose now we’ve got the kit of components it’s time to see the layup itself, so these molds are all prepared with release agent and ready to laminate onto so what’s the first step Vlad? Well the first step is to put the head tube piece and then start with the bottom tube, top tube, and join. So this is working with the 200 gram woven fiber first and just systematically lay that down onto the moulds and you’re doing both of these simultaneously? Do both of them simultaneously, also flipping them, it’s mirrored, one side is mirrored from the other side. yeah I suppose it helps, it makes things a lot quicker if you’re working on both molds at the same time and just do the same component on each one and then move your way between the two. okay, all right, let’s see it done! the first ply into the mold is layer that will be visible on the outside of the part so when you are looking for a really good cosmetic finish extra care should be taken with this ply to ensure that all of the weave is perfectly oriented, laminated and aligned, one side of the frame is trimmed down to the mold flange and the other will be left protruding to start the laps that join the frame halves. So now you’ve got the first ply fully laminated you’re choosing to do a debulk at this stage is that right? Yes it always helps after the first layer so with complicated parts like this it just pushes all the corners down and gets the detail, right so just yeah, consolidating it into all these sharp features and details in the frame now that we’ve got the first Ply laid up and Debulked what’s the next stage? Well it’s the second ply, which is again we use 210g twill but it’s gonna sit at 45 plus minus 45 degrees essentially just the same as this first layer but we’re using the same material but turned around through 45 degrees presumably just to give it more even strength throughout? yeah it’s just strength of the skin. The second ply is laminated in just the same way as the first the 45 degree orientation increases the torsional stiffness of the tube prior to the unidirectional plies that will follow. So we’ve got the first two plies into the mold so we have the 0 90 woven fabric and then the plus minus 45 degree woven fabric after that so the next layers to go in are unidirectional carbon now unidirectional carbon has all of the fibers running in one direction which means all of the strength or nearly all of the strength is running in that direction so in the case of a bike frame how do you take most advantage of unidirectional fibers? So the basics are we run along the tubes so this way we tie head tube to bottom bracket to all the mount points like where the linkages go and where the shock go about the use of the UD is actually around those same points to reinforce and to add extra strength the case of a tube you want the strength down the length of the tube so we predominantly align it the fibers down that way and then maybe on mounting lugs you would where the loads are going in a different direction you wrap it around to put the load through in whatever direction it is traveling in. Let’s start laminating! as this frame already has good torsional strength and hoop strength provided by the woven surface plies the unidirectional material is oriented straight down the length of the tubes in the case of this build the main tubes consists of two plies of 210 grams 2/2 twill on the surface followed by four plies of 300 gram unidirectional and finally backed to the further one ply of 210 gram to 2/2 twill this laminate is over specified for the build and will almost certainly be reduced by two or three plies after this first proof of concept has been tested, stressed areas such as the head tube suspension mountings and bottom bracket will have more plies that stagger into the main tubes forming a taper to spread the stress concentration so with the layup almost complete this is a great opportunity to go around having a look at how Vlad’s tackled some of the more complicated or challenging areas of the frame so the first and most obvious thing are the laps we can see here these are not just a straight lap they are actually staggered could you explain why why you’ve done it this way and why it’s the best way for a bike frame? Well this way we, by having all the layers exposed of the twill we make sure that everything is connected from this half to the other half. okay and on the plus side we have the UD let’s say for example between first and second layer of twill that you see you have UD encapsulated in. Right so what looks like just twill at this point is actually a, has actually got UD buried inside there as well, yeah further down below the edge. And so on the counterpart from this staggered lap we’ve got the same thing staggering in, in reverse here and so I suppose the theory is that these these laps and the staggered sections here, yeah they match the other half, match the other half, and this way we have a much more constant thickness in the laminate. yeah so keeping a relatively uniform wall thickness throughout the tube okay so other areas, I mean certainly, let’s take a look around like the shock mount here this, this is another area of the frame it’s not just a straight tube it’s highly stressed, could you go through the process of achieving a good result in components and areas of the frame like this? So basically we can see only the top layer here but underneath the top layer we have uni directional carbon going around the pin, the reason why I laminate around the pin is because for example if you drilled a hole there we have fibers which are just, been broken effectively by drill bit. So now all the fibers they do what they’re supposed to do. This area is completely solid with carbon so there’s not gonna be any vacuum bag in there presumably it’s really critical the number of layers that you put in that area so looking at the head tube I can see we’ve got inserts in a very similar way than we had around this shock mount here but it does look a little bit more complicated so could you run through what the what the layup is around here and what the main considerations are? So basically again under the twill we have lots of UD wrapped around the bearing cups, okay so yeah uni-directional spiraled round there because effectively that’s where you steerer tube goes through, your bearings are sat into the frame there and this is under huge amount of strain coming up through from the forks so that hoop strength that you get from UD is absolutely key in that area and and then we’ve got the laps at the front here just like we have. Right we do have the laps which lock the top and the bottom of the head tube and the front of the head tube but again we have the UD here also connects to the other half, because we don’t have any laps here the function of those two hoops there to keep the two halves together in this area exactly. So this area here actually becomes almost like a bonding face that mates to the other side and because the vacuum bag can’t get in to that corner there again this must be very critical on on laminate thickness to make sure you get good consolidation between the two? It’s relies like on the in the shock mount it relies entirely on the how much carbon is in there. Right so purely on the compression provided by the tooling okay next section we’re going to look at here is is this part of the frame here now this is actually the shock tunnel so it’s where the frame wraps around the rear shock unit this isn’t a straight forward compression fitting like that it does have a vacuum bag as well so could you explain how this one works well we have a combination of bag and compression area okay so towards the rear here it’s very much the same as yes so where the drop-off or the linkage is mounted the insert actually presses down that that provides a consolidation there just the same as here and then this section here presumably these now will need laminating yeah they do need laminating but the reason why they’re not laminated is because I had to check again like a few times if the compressionable area there is all right and if the laps acctually open correctly and we don’t want them overlapping on each other. So where the linkage mount is there that’s a solid laminate in there very much the same as around the actual shock mount here and then this section here will have a vacuum bag pass through it yeah okay so presumably now the next stage is to just laminate the material onto the inside of these to effectively close that and turn it into a short but squat tube we now have all of the carbon fiber laid up into the frame so we’re going to be moving on to the vacuum bagging stage now it’s a lot more common you’ll see in mass production to use an inflatable bladder which is done in billet aluminium tools closed together and pressurized however for prototyping and small volume production is perfectly viable to use a vacuum bagging technique, now it’s a bit strange to think that a vacuum can be used to apply pressure onto the inside of a tube but hopefully this will show you how it’s done so what’s the first stage in this process Vlad? Basically it’s cutting the bags to size, okay so the vacuum bagging tube cutting that and then. Sealing. Sealing the ends, okay let’s get going! so now with vacuum bags made and sealed they’re ready to go into the mold but before that I understand you’re going to put some release film down and that’s there to stop the bag from gripping onto the surface? yeah we do put some release film down, just on the half where the laps are it, basically, will allow the bag to slide and position itself into the mold when we apply the vacuum. With the prepreg being quite tacky on the surface you’ve got the vacuum bag if you you imagine having a bit of pressure against that it’s it’s very difficult for it to slide and move out into the into the frame so if we use some release film that then lets the bag sit in and slide around the real thing to be careful of here is that you don’t get any release film going onto the wrong side of your lap if you get a bit of a release film between the lap and the other side of the frame you’re going to have no bond strength whatsoever and that could be a potentially get very dangerous situation to be in so the release film is just going into this one side on the side of the laps and then there’s no risk of it subsequently getting into the gap so the first bag is going to be the one through the on one side of the shock tunnel here yeah that’s correct and then we close the insert, so so it’s very important to make sure that all of these laps don’t get trapped underneath underneath the edges there. This is the four bags in the mold so each one of these is sealed at the end so it’s not a continuous tube so we’ve got one bag that comes in through the head tube along the top tube and meets here at the seat tube, you can see that pairs against the bag that’s here, we’ve got this seat tube bag on this component and on the other side so we’ve got two bags going in through that same aperture in the seat tube and then they pair off either side of the shock tunnel and again they’re sealed off at the end here and meet the fourth bag which is this one on the down tube which comes out of the bottom of the steerer tube so I’m noticing Here you’ve got an awful lot of creases and wrinkles in the bag, why is it important to have this much extra? The profile the tubes it tapers out so even though the bag, the end of the bag is enough to cover it’s good to double up areas like this, it’s same for the bottom bracket it’s you can do it this way I can good you can go like this way it’s as long as you have full coverage of the area yeah yeah and as long as there’s enough bag to push the laps out that’s job done! And so why is this not just done with one sort of continuous bag why have you got four individual ones? Well it could be done with one bag but then if you want to remove the bag in which case, in this case we want to remove the bags it just makes it easy to pull them out separately so this way they won’t be locking in, in anyway after curing yeah you’re just pulling out one continuous bag rather than a hoop that would be, you’d have to tear yeah also that’s one of the reasons why we put also the surface film. yeah okay so the next stage now is to is to close this up this is pretty high stakes so presumably it’s just like we did with the shock shock tunnel inserts making sure everything’s folded in neatly that you get no material trapped on these barriers. We’ve got the molds just held slightly open obviously we tried to get all of those laps to fold in as best as we could but actually to make to make absolutely certain that they’re down we can gradually close the mold and go in through the gap and just push the laps in to make sure that you never get pinched between the two clamping faces. For these bolts that are clamping the molds together I notice that this is a six millimeter bolt and it’s actually going through an 8 millimeter hole that won’t help any when in the alignment so what are you using to make sure that these moulds are sitting perfectly and accurately aligned? So the first thing that actually aligns the front of the mold is the inserts yeah yeah but because we don’t have any inserts aligning the mould at the back we have few few of those pins we just use them as location pins so we just get an 8 mil pin and it just goes in, so this makes sure it’s located yeah ok couple more on the back and the rest is just and so all of the bolts are just at it to clamp the mold faces. So these four inner bags are now projecting out of the clamped up mold and this whole assembly now goes inside another vacuum bag that will surround it and the inner bags will come through the outside of bag hopefully this will make a bit more sense when you actually see it So essentially all we’re trying to do with the inner bag is breach the seal of the outer bag so we’ve got the seal to the outer bag the pink bag here so we draw the seal back tack the inner bag across the sealant tape then seal over the top of that bag with another section of tape which then allows the outer bag to fully seal around it so now in this section here we actually have a breach through the seal meaning that the ambient atmospheric pressure when we draw a vacuum on the main bag the atmospheric pressure is not sealed to this inner bag and so that will inflate the atmospheric pressure. So it’s all bagged up now, so this is basically ready for a cure but before that we’re going to do a bit of a debulk how long are you going to leave this under vacuum? oh we’re going to leave this overnight and put in the oven tommorow. So a debulk overnight that gives us opportunity to make sure that the bags holding a perfect seal and gives extra time for the laminate to fully consolidate so we’ve left this under vacuum debulking overnight and so now all that’s left is the final cure for this cure we’re using the X preg XC 110 extended cure cycle which is a two-step cure cycle with a final cure temperature of 120 degrees C, full details of the recommended cure cycles can be found on the XPREG XC110 technical and processing data sheets on the Easy Composites website. So this is the frame exactly as it comes out of the mold so it’ll be a great chance for us to take a look see how the inserts work and see the standard of finish that’s been achieved, first thing Vlad we’ve got these these inserts and they make a lot more sense now I can see them integrated into the frame, so removal process for those what what’s involved? oh it’s pretty simple it’s just knocking them out of place, with the draft angles positioned correctly we should be able to do this with not much trouble. That was a lot easier than I would have anticipated and then yeah let’s get those out, so all the inserts are out that is essentially the the final frame prior to finishing so looking at this you can see we’ve got quite a bit of flash, there’s the occasional bit where the odd fiber has come out into the flash line that’s what you’re trying to avoid when you close the mold but as long as you only get very slight bit, you know, single fibers they will get clamped into the mold and won’t cause a problem so if we get up really closely to this top tube section here you can see the the end result that we’ve managed to achieve straight from the mold now there are some very very small surface pinholes here, this would be typical on a part like this that’s got multiple plies the vacuum bagging is inaccessible during the processing, but these are very insignificant they don’t really have any structural bearing on the part and as soon as this has had the paint or the clear coat these will become completely invisible so it’s just a good opportunity to show you the great results that you do get straight from the mold with the XC110 system. So with the front triangle molding complete what’s next from here? Well repeat the exactly same process for the rear triangle so this is the rear triangle sections all laid up and ready to vacuum bag on the face of it here it looks very similar to the front triangle and is there anything in particular that’s different about this? Well you’re right it’s more or less the same, the difference comes in the structure most of the UD is on the outside of the tubes and on the inside we have less material because we have those laps closing on. So this section that will close to this is laminated thinner and then these laps here will will give that area more bulk yeah, well the laminate is gonna be even inside out this way. Okay well let’s press on and do the vacuum bagging! Same as the front triangle these are going to go into an envelope bag and these internal bags are going to come through the seal on the outer bag putting the vacuum on to the inside of the tube so this would be cured on the same cure cycle as the front triangle so we’re going to pop that in now and we’ll see in a few hours time for the de- molding So with the two sections of the rear triangle out of the mold what’s the next stage from here Vlad? Well same as the front triangle we need to give them a good clean and deburr then we need to prep them for bonding. With the rear triangle now deburred, trimmed and prepped ready for bonding it’s now just a case of aligning those two parts together so I see here you’ve got the two sides of the frame so you got the the front triangle and the linkages, why are we using this rather than a full-blown jig well we’re using this because it’s a first prototype and because everything is modeled on the front triangle it gives us pretty good alignment for the rear okay so it’s just a case of presumably taking those two elements using a structural adhesive in between the two and then aligning it all up yeah right To prepare these parts for bonding the mating faces were degreased and are braided with 80 grit sandpaper there is approximately a 0.5 millimeter gap which allows for an effective bond line and will allow a small degree of adjustment and for final alignment, the adhesive we’re using here is the Vuduglu VM100 methyl methacrylate adhesive which is an excellent choice in most composite bonding applications, we have plans to do a video dedicated to comparing and testing adhesives if you want to hear about this when it’s released please subscribe to our channel and hit the notification bell. With the front and rear triangle now essentially complete or at least all the composite side of things are what’s the next stage from here to take this to the to the finished article? Well next stage is a little bit more sanding so I’m go with a satin clear-coat and I’m going to keep the raw look of the carbon frame. Right so you keeping the raw carbon finish with a satin clear coat right well next stop spray booth So this is it these are the completed frame components back from paint so from a composites perspective all the work’s now done what are the next steps for this? well we need to assemble it so put the linkages in put the shock and then put the rest of the components and yeah the plan is that this is going to be raced this weekend right so it’s getting straight out this weekend and see how it does. We’re only going to have like one day of testing before the race and that’s it! right okay well if you’re racing it this weekend I think we should get the GoPro out and hopefully all goes to plan the next shot you’ll see of this bike on the track! I hope you’ve enjoyed following us along through this project to support our channel we always appreciate a like and subscribe if you’re feeling inspired and want to learn more about composites please check out our other videos where you’ll find more detailed explanations of the various processes and techniques that you’ve seen used here and of course you can find more information on the materials and equipment used in this project on the Easy Composites website [Music]